[13] The 2018 federal poverty threshold for a family of four was $25,465 ($490 per week for 52 weeks); see U.S. Census Bureau. Women earn the smallest share of a similar male coworkers’ salary when they pursue jobs or work in industries dominated by men. The occupations together employ 41.9 percent of women and 15.6 percent of men working full-time. It’s clear that more needs to be done to ensure that more women are able to progress faster, and further, in practice. Earnings data are made available only where there are an estimated minimum of 50,000 workers in an occupation; many occupations have fewer than 50,000 women and/or men working within them and earnings data are not published; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Pathways to Equity: Narrowing the Wage Gap by Improving Women’s Access to Good Middle-Skill Jobs. Too often it is assumed that this gap is not evidence of discrimination, but is instead a statistical artifact of failing to adjust for factors that could drive earnings differences between men and women. Nearly every state has narrowed its gender pay gap since 2010. The wage gaps between Black female and male workers and Hispanic female and male workers are smaller than between all women and men, largely because the men in these groups have very low earnings, too.[16]. Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.” (accessed March 28, 2019). The gender earnings gap is magnified by a racial and ethnic earnings gap. Three of the 20 most common occupations for men have median male weekly earnings above $1,500, including one, ‘chief executives,’ at$2,488 per week; none of the most common occupations for women has female median weekly earnings at that level. 2005-01-01 00:00:00 I. Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, (accessed March 2019). The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male domi-nated professions. … The gender pay gap is the percentage difference between men's and women’s median hourly earnings. Undervalued and Underpaid in America: Women in Low-Wage, Female-Dominated Jobs Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research (accessed March 2019). Copyright 2020 - Institute for Women's Policy Research | All Rights Reserved | Designed by, Center on the Economics of Reproductive Health, on The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2018, Building a Better Future for Women in New Orleans Post COVID-19: Opportunities for Women in Skilled Trade and Technical Jobs, Women’s Share of Unemployment Insurance Claimants varies Strongly Across States, Build(ing) the Future: Bold Policies for a Gender-Equitable Recovery, Despite modest employment gains, women still 5.5 million jobs below pre-pandemic level. While workers with a bachelor’s degree … Source: IWPR calculation of data from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018. Consultants and accountants both showed a much smaller gap… But 85 percent would be eliminated if the pay gap within each occupation … The gender pay gap in the United States is the ratio of female-to-male median or average (depending on the source) yearly earnings among full-time, year-round workers. Women earn less than men in 439 of 446 major U.S. occupations, a Wall … Many of these jobs are low paid even though workers are expected to have at least a high school diploma and some post-secondary credentials. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (accessed February 5, 2020). The "Gender Pay Gap" Isn't What You Think It Is [4] The other four occupations in which women’s median full-time weekly earnings are at least at 105 percent of men’s are ‘reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks’ (112.0 percent); ‘clinical laboratory technologists and technicians’ (111.2 percent), ‘advertising sales agents’ (110.8 percent), and ‘billing and posting clerks’ (109.2 percent). [17] If women were paid the same per hour as men of the same age, education, and rural or urban residence, poverty rates for working women would be cut in half.[18]. You might find this hard to believe. Poverty-level wages are especially common for Hispanic women. Seven of the most common occupations for women have median weekly earnings for women below the SNAP eligibility threshold; four of the most common occupations for men have such low median earnings for men. Black women have median weekly earnings of $654, 58.9 percent of the median weekly earnings of White men. Asian women are considerably less likely than other women to work in ‘office and administrative support’ occupations; and. More education leads to higher earnings but the gender pay gap is wider among men and women with a bachelor’s degree than among those without. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (accessed March 20, 2019). The paper systematically examines the degree to which the gender earnings gap in China is due to the differences in occupational distributions of males and females, highlighting that the conventional Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions can under- or over- estimate the unexplained portion of the gender pay gap by controlling or not controlling for differences in the occupational distribution of … That is, even if men and women were found in the occupations in proportion to their total workforce, gender gaps would not be reduced to any great extent. Source: IWPR calculation of unpublished data based on U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. In general, the highest paid occupations have the biggest gender gaps; all but one of the ten occupations with the largest gender wage gaps have earnings that are higher than median earnings for all full-time workers ($886). [14] When including part- as well as full-time workers, 9.2 million women work in occupations with median weekly earnings for women for full-time work below the poverty threshold for a family of four, and just under a million (989,012) men work in occupations with median weekly earnings for full-time work for men below the poverty threshold. Search. The gender pay gap … … [7] Only five of the 20 most common occupations for men and the 20 most common occupations for women overlap (Tables 1 and 2). Copyright 2020 - Institute for Women's Policy Research | All Rights Reserved | Designed by, Center on the Economics of Reproductive Health, on The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2019, Building a Better Future for Women in New Orleans Post COVID-19: Opportunities for Women in Skilled Trade and Technical Jobs, Women’s Share of Unemployment Insurance Claimants varies Strongly Across States, Build(ing) the Future: Bold Policies for a Gender-Equitable Recovery, Despite modest employment gains, women still 5.5 million jobs below pre-pandemic level. Eight of the occupations are nontraditional for women,[10] and in five of the 20—‘construction laborers,’ ‘carpenters,’ ‘grounds maintenance workers,’ ‘automotive service technicians and mechanics,’ and ‘electricians,’—there are too few women workers to estimate their median weekly earnings. GENDER PAY GAP Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation By Katharina Wrohlich and Aline Zucco The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. Both Asian men and women have the highest median weekly earnings, at $1,241 and $937, respectively, reflecting that they have the highest rates of educational attainment among these demographic groups. Table 3 provides median weekly earnings for women and men for full-time work by race and ethnicity in seven broad occupational groups. The Institute’s research strives to give voice to the needs of women from diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds across the income spectrum and to ensure that their perspectives enter the public debate on ending discrimination and inequality, improving opportunity, and increasing economic security for women and families. Males participate more often in higher paid jobs, for instance in executive positions (93.7%), what affects the scale of the gender pay gap as well. Public policy such as raising the minimum wage, which increases wages in the lowest-paid jobs, is especially important for women, and particularly women of color. The occupation with the second largest pay gap is administrative services managers. There are two distinct numbers regarding the pay gap: non-adjusted versus adjusted pay gap. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor (accessed March 2019). Gender Wage Gap Heavily Influenced By Occupation … you think of a man and woman who work exactly the same job at exactly the same place More than fifty years after the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 made discrimination illegal, a gender earnings gap remains. The most common occupational group for Asian, White, and Black women is ‘professional and related’ occupations; ‘service’ occupations is the most common group for Hispanic women. Male-dominated occupations tend to pay more than female-dominated occupations at similar skill levels. [13] These numbers rise to 13.8 million full-time working women, compared with 8.6 million full-time working men, when using the slightly higher eligibility threshold for SNAP (formerly known as food stamps) of $628 per week for a family of four. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations. Data to allow checking whether these differences are statistically significant are not published. Gender pay gap by occupation. Investing in the public care infrastructure will not only improve the pay and economic security of workers in those jobs, it will also make it easier for women and men with care responsibilities to stay economically active and advance in their careers. Both occupations require at least a bachelor’s degree. “Household Data Annual Averages Table 39. The biggest part of the gender pay gap is caused by education, choice of occupation and sector combined. MBA pay. [1] The occupation with the largest gender wage gap is ‘securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents’ in 2018; women’s median weekly earnings for full-time work in this occupation were just 63.9 percent of those of men’s, corresponding to a gender wage gap of 36.1 percent.

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