It is affected by things like the proportion of men and women working part-time, and the proportion of men and women working in different industries or occupations. [i] This fact sheet shows median weekly earnings for full-time (35 hours or more per week) wage and salaried workers ages 16 and older (excluding the self-employed) based on Current Population Survey (CPS) annual averages for the calendar year 2019. E. Casey Foundation, Ford Foundation, and NoVo Foundation. These two occupational groups employ nearly four in ten Hispanic full-time women workers (36.9 percent; Table 3). In 2018, women earned 85% of what men earned, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of median hourly earnings of both full- and part-time workers in the United States. The 2018 SNAP eligibility threshold for a family of four at 130 percent of the poverty is $2,720 per month ($628 per week for 52 weeks); see U.S. Department of Agriculture. Without exception, women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in the 20 largest occupations for men for which data are available. The gender pay gap in the United States is the ratio of female-to-male median or average (depending on the source) yearly earnings among full-time, year-round workers. How the gender pay gap is calculated. 87%. The gender pay gap by occupation for full-time employees is in favour of men for all the main occupation groups, ranging from 4.4 per cent for sales and customer service occupations to 22.4 per cent for skilled trades occupations. In this role men make a median $1,629 per week, and women make $1,013. . Disaggregating the data into occupation groups shows that on average, females earned less than males in eight of the nine occupation groups. The gender wage gap appears to vary in size by education level, employment sector, occupation, and job title. Women earn less than men in 439 of 446 major U.S. occupations, a Wall … The current gender wage gap in America, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), sits at slightly less than 82%. As of 2021 the most recent figures place the average woman's earnings at around 80% of the average man's, though this varies significantly between occupations.. There are two occupations in … Key findings ... occupation and gender, April 2019 . 2020. Search. [14] When including part- as well as full-time workers, 9.2 million women work in occupations with median weekly earnings for women for full-time work below the poverty threshold for a family of four, and just under a million (989,012) men work in occupations with median weekly earnings for full-time work for men below the poverty threshold. The gender wage gap varies widely by state. Note: Earnings data are published only for occupations with an estimated minimum of 50,000 workers. [6] Teachers at the same level are generally paid similarly, and it is possible that the weekly wage differential of $166 shown here is due to women and men working at different job levels within this broad category for teachers, or possibly to more men than women taking on extra duties such as coaching or leading special programs. The gender wage gap is unadjusted and is calculated as the difference between average earnings of men and average earnings of women expressed as a percentage of average earnings of men. The latter typically takes into account differences in hours worked, occupations chosen, education and job experience. Poverty-level wages are especially common for Hispanic women. [iv] The other occupations where women’s median weekly earnings are marginally higher than men’s and the median weekly gender earnings ratio for full-time work is higher than 100 percent are ‘first-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers’ (with a gender earnings ratio of 101.4% and median weekly earnings for women of $1,173), ‘stock clerks and order fillers’ (101.5% and $605, respectively), ‘industrial production managers’ (101.9% and $1,497, respectively; this occupation is comparatively small for women),  and ‘combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food’ (102.2% and $467, respectively. Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research. 2019. The gender pay gap is the result of many factors, including race and ethnicity, disability, access to education and age. Data to allow checking whether these differences are statistically significant are not published. Occupations with estimated earnings1 of. The biggest part of the gender pay gap is caused by education, choice of occupation and sector combined. The gender wage gap affects all types of women, not only those who earn middle-class wages. The two occupations that saw an increase are professional occupations, and administrative and secretarial; each experienced a small percentage increase to the gender pay gap … [7] In 2010, differences of employment across occupations explained 32.9 percent of the gender wage gap and differences in the distribution of women’s and men’s employment across industries explained 17.6 percent; Francine D. Blau and Lawrence Kahn. “Household Data Annual Averages Table 39. Table 1: The gender pay gap among full-time employees fell in seven of the nine main occupation groups Gender pay gap for median gross hourly earnings (excluding overtime) for full-time employees by occupation group, percentage point change, year ending April 2019; Occupation Hourly earnings (£) Gender pay gap Change from 2018; Managers, directors and senior officials: 22.07: 15.9: … Pay gaps often widen by age and job level, a ... Only respondents who chose exactly one of the above were included in our analysis of the gender pay gap by race. Household Data Annual Averages. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male domi-nated professions. [3], Altogether, there are just five occupations in which women’s median earnings are at least 105 percent of men’s, while there are 108 occupations in which women’s median earnings were 95 percent or less than men’s (that is, a wage gap of at least 5 cents per dollar earned by men). Figure 12: Gender pay gap for median full-time hourly earnings (excluding overtime), by major occupation group, UK, April 2015 . Unemployment rates in occupations by gender; Gender differences in the average working week; What are the best paid jobs? After considerable progress in the 1980s and 1990s, progress towards the greater gender integration of occupations has stalled, approximately at the same time as progress towards closing the gender wage gap. Data from Earnest showed the job title with the greatest gender pay gap was medical physicians. These occupations employ 33.2 percent of male full-time workers and 16.5 percent of female full-time workers. There are just five occupations in which women’s median weekly earnings are higher than men’s, and 120 occupations in which they are lower. 2019. The government now requires British companies with more than 250 employees to publish their gender pay gap data, but this will not happen in 2020 because of the coronavirus pandemic. Note: Earnings data are published only for occupations with an estimated minimum of 50,000 workers. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations. [10] See note 5 above for definition of ‘nontraditional’. “The Impact of Equal Pay on Poverty and the Economy.” IWPR Briefing Paper #C445; Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research . IWPR is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization that also works in affiliation with the Program on Gender Analysis in Economics at American University. “Poverty Thresholds.” < https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html > (retrieved March 2019). under $20,000. As of 2021 the most recent figures … < http://iwpr.org/publications/gender-wage-gap-2018/ >. 2018. When part-time workers are included, the share of women workers working in female-dominated occupations is lower, at 38.5 percent; the share of men workers in male-dominated occupations is also lower, at 41.8 percent; IWPR calculation based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. How the gender pay gap is calculated. Although the gender pay gap is in favour of females when looking at all full-time employees, overall this is not the case within occupations. Arkansas is the most improved. Horizontal or … [19] See Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann. However, whichever way it is measured, the gender pay gap still remains. [ii] The median weekly gender earnings ratio for all full-time weekly workers was 81.5 percent, a weekly gender wage gap of 18.5 percent (Table 1).[iii]. “Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (retrieved March 2019). [6] Men in ‘software developers, applications and systems software’—one the most common occupations for men and a male-dominated field—earn $1,894 per week for full-time work (compared with $1,644 for women; Table 2). www.equalityhumanrights.com Published: August 2017 8 20.7% in 1993, however less so than the general gap. We look at the gender pay gap by occupations, using the … After all, the idea of women making about $0.78 for every dollar earned … 2019. “The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations” Journal of Economic Literature 55(3): 789-865. Search by organisation. The gender pay gap … However, just as the gender wage gap can vary by occupation, job title, and company, some evidence indicates that within-job discrimination might be contributing to the gender wage gap in particular occupations or companies. The occupation with the second largest pay gap is administrative services managers. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (accessed March 20, 2019). The gender wage gap among the 20 most common occupations is largest for ‘financial managers,’ with a gender earnings ratio for full-time work of 70.7 percent (corresponding to a wage gap of 29.3 percent, which amounts to $522 dollars less per week for women than men) and the second largest gap is for ‘retail salespersons’ with a ratio of 71.1 percent (corresponding to a wage gap … [iii] Another measure of the gender earnings ratio based on median annual earnings for full-time, year-round work, which includes the self-employed and annual bonus and commission payments, was 81.5 percent (a gender wage gap of 18.5 percent) in 2018; 2019 data will not be published until September 2020. Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, (accessed March 2019). It is most commonly measured in the median annual pay of all women who work full time compared to a similar group of men. The occupation with the highest earnings gap in favor of women is ‘combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food,’ with a median weekly gender earnings ratio of 115.9 percent, a gender wage gap in favor of women of 15.9 percent, and median weekly earnings for all full-time workers of just $436.[4]. Serious attempts to understand the gender wage gap should not include shifting the blame to women for not earning more. [12] See Hegewisch et al. [2] The median gender earnings ratio for all full-time weekly workers was 81.1 percent, a weekly gender wage gap of 18.9 percent (Table 1). The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) conducts and communicates research to inspire public dialogue, shape policy, and improve the lives and opportunities of women of diverse backgrounds, circumstances, and experiences. But 85 percent would be eliminated if the pay gap within each occupation … The earnings ratios for Asian women compared with Asian men, at 75.5 percent, and White women compared with White men, at 78.6 percent, are lower than the gender earnings ratio for the whole population (81.1 percent), and the wage gaps (24.5 percent and 21.5 percent respectively, compared with 18.9 percent) are larger. As a result, different groups of women experience very different gaps in pay. Male-dominated occupations tend to pay more than female-dominated occupations at similar skill levels. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations. “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).” (retrieved March 2019). Search and compare gender pay gap data Employers with 250 or more employees have published their figures comparing men and women’s average pay across the organisation. 2014. “The Gender Wage Gap 2018: Earnings Differences by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity.” Fact Sheet, IWPR #C478. Too often it is assumed that this gap is not evidence of discrimination, but is instead a statistical artifact of failing to adjust for factors that could drive earnings differences between men and women. Earnings data are made available only where there are an estimated minimum of 50,000 workers in an occupation; many occupations have fewer than 50,000 women and/or men working within them and earnings data are not published; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. A positive gender pay gap among full-time employees exists in each of the nine main occupation groups, but it has fallen since 2019 in all but two. [18] See Jessica Milli, Ph.D., Yixuan Huang, Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Jeff Hayes, Ph.D. 2017. “The Gender Wage Gap 2018: Earnings Differences by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity.” Fact Sheet, IWPR #C484. The occupation with the widest gap in earnings is ‘personal financial advisers,’ with a gender earnings ratio of just 61.3 percent. Occupations. Discrimination accounts for … Table 3 provides median weekly earnings for women and men for full-time work by race and ethnicity in seven broad occupational groups. A further 23.3 million women are in occupations paying them full-time weekly earnings below SNAP eligibility, compared with 11.7 million men in occupations paying full-time weekly earnings below SNAP eligibility. gender wage gap within occupations are far larger than those across occupations. It’s a measure of inequality and captures a concept that is broader than the concept of equal pay for equal work. Household Data Annual Averages. “Household Data Annual Averages Table 39. Occupational gender segregation and the gender wage gap have both declined over the period examined in this study, as is apparent from LFS data presented in Figure 1. It is not a measure of the difference in pay between men and women doing the same job. The occupations together employ 41.9 percent of women and 15.6 percent of men working full-time. Blacks and … Copyright 2020 - Institute for Women's Policy Research | All Rights Reserved | Designed by, Center on the Economics of Reproductive Health, on The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2019, Building a Better Future for Women in New Orleans Post COVID-19: Opportunities for Women in Skilled Trade and Technical Jobs, Women’s Share of Unemployment Insurance Claimants varies Strongly Across States, Build(ing) the Future: Bold Policies for a Gender-Equitable Recovery, Despite modest employment gains, women still 5.5 million jobs below pre-pandemic level. Table 1 shows the median weekly earnings and the gender earnings ratio in the 20 most common occupations for full-time working women. The gender pay gap is the percentage difference between men's and women’s median hourly earnings. 69%. The Institute’s research strives to give voice to the needs of women from diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds across the income spectrum and to ensure that their perspectives enter the public debate on ending discrimination and inequality, improving opportunity, and increasing economic security for women and families. [i] The occupation with the largest gender wage gap is ‘financial managers’; women’s 2019 median weekly earnings for full-time work in this occupation were just 63.6 percent of those of men’s, a gender wage gap … Men have higher median earnings than women of the same race or ethnicity in each of the major occupational groupings, except for Black and Hispanic workers in ‘office and administrative support’ and Black workers in ‘natural resources, construction, and maintenance’ occupations, where the median earnings of women are slightly higher than same-race and -ethnicity men’s earnings (Table 3). N/A=No data or does not meet BLS publication criteria. The gender pay gap in the United States is the ratio of female-to-male median or average (depending on the source) yearly earnings among full-time, year-round workers. Source: IWPR calculation of unpublished data based on U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Median weekly earnings for all women full-time workers is $1,003. In … Yes. Male social workers earn $935 per week and female social workers earn $900 per week. See Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann. However, in every occupation group the gender pay gap is in favour of men. [2] The occupation of ‘securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents’ is 33.5 percent female, with median weekly earnings for full-time work of $1,047 for women and $1,639 for men; three other occupations—‘physicians and surgeons,’ ‘sales and related workers, all others,’ and ‘credit counselors and loan officers’—have a gender earnings ratio of 67 percent or less (of 66.7, 66.0, and 65.7 percent respectively) ; men’s median weekly earnings are higher than $1,000 in each of these; IWPR calculation based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2018), as above. Tackling occupational segregation—many men working in occupations with other men, and many women working with other women—is an important part of eliminating the gender wage gap. The only areas where pay disparity has gotten worse are South Dakota, DC, New Hampshire, Alabama, North Dakota, New Jersey, and Iowa. INTRODUCTION It is clear that occupational assignment plays a major role in the distribution of wages and hence it may influence the existence and measurement of the gender pay gap. [4] The other four occupations in which women’s median full-time weekly earnings are at least at 105 percent of men’s are ‘reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks’ (112.0 percent); ‘clinical laboratory technologists and technicians’ (111.2 percent), ‘advertising sales agents’ (110.8 percent), and ‘billing and posting clerks’ (109.2 percent). The gender pay gap is the difference between the average (mean or median) earnings of men and women across a workforce. The gender pay gap (or the gender wage gap) is a metric that tells us the difference in pay (or wages, or income) between women and men. Women earn less than men in all but two of the largest occupations for women. Table 39. Added to the gender wage gap within occupations is the gender wage gap between occupations. Female physicians had median earnings of $180,000 compared with $216,000 for their male counterparts. [5] See Ariane Hegewisch, Marc Bendick, Barbara Gault, and Heidi Hartmann. All but two of the 10 occupations with the largest gender wage gaps have earnings that are higher than median earnings for all full-time workers ($917). The gender pay gap across the architecture industry of 10.4% (median) and 15.2% (mean) in favour of men is a reflection of the gender imbalance at higher levels within practices. Our analysis shows that women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in all but two of the 20 most common occupations for women, all the most common occupations for men, and, indeed, in almost all occupations for which a gender wage gap can be calculated. 2016. Both Asian men and women have the highest median weekly earnings, at $1,241 and $937, respectively, reflecting that they have the highest rates of educational attainment among these demographic groups. Back in March, the Government Equalities Office and the Equality and Human Rights Commission suspended enforcement of gender pay gap reporting for the 2019/20 reporting […] The gender earnings gap is magnified by a racial and ethnic earnings gap. The gender wage gap differs by race and ethnicity. Gender pay gap by occupation; Which jobs do men and women do? Table 39. Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men, or occupations with a more even mix of men and women. Note: Data for White workers is for Whites alone, non-Hispanic; data for Black and Asian workers may include Hispanics. Ten of these 20 large occupations are female-dominated. “Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (retrieved March 2019). Gender pay gap by occupation. [7] Only five of the 20 most common occupations for men and the 20 most common occupations for women overlap (Tables 1 and 2). Gap between what similarly qualified men and those of women experience very different gaps in pay between 's. Explanations ” Journal of Economic Literature 55 ( 3 ). ” https. Iwpr # C478 of male full-time workers is for Whites alone, non-Hispanic data... 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