Moral patients require the concern of moral agents, but need not themselves be capable of moral … c. Humans are superior to animals because they are rational. ( Log Out /  . Are all moral patients also moral agents? Savannah03209. Comments Let's begin with the Michael Cholbi September 17, 2015 (changed September 17, 2015) Permalink. ◦                     Response 2c: Since vegetarianism is becoming popular your conversion to vegetarianism reduces the time to the threshold where the factory farming industry will have to produce less and therefore you save much suffering by reducing the time till the next reduction in production. The ongoing march toward evidence-based practices tends to neglect the human dimensions of the practitioner, patient, and psychotherapy (Norcross et al., 2017). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. yes. A moral patient lacks the ability to formulate, let alone bring to bear, moral principles in deliberating about which one among a number of possible acts it would be right or proper to perform. It is not permissible to kill and eat humans who have the same cognitive capacities as farm animals. (b): “those individuals who are conscious, sentient, and posses other cognitive and volitional abilities discussed in previous chapters (e.g., belief and memory). Encouragez le patient, offrez-lui de l'aide et, si nécessaire, adressez-le à un programme de traitement de la dépendance à l'alcool ou à d'autres substances. Fred’s Basement Consider the story of Fred, who receives a visit from the police one day. Are some moral patients also moral agents, according to Norcross? An individual who consistently acts morally, b. One cannot ask, How much intrinsic value is the inherent value of this individual worth – how much is it equal to? What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. ◦                     “It appears, then, that the claim of causal impotence is mere wishful thinking, on the part of those meat lovers who are morally sensitive enough to realize that that human gustatory pleasure does not justify inflicting extreme suffering on animals . Only Moral Patients 4. But this would seem to imply that we can take advantage of people who don't exercise or do not fully have this capacity, like young children. John Corvino: Why Shouldn’t Tommy and Jim Have Sex? “Our belief that it is the dog who should be killed is justified by appeal to the worse-off principle”, “Thus the case for animals rights has been offered. Whether they are moral agents or patients, we must treat them in ways that respect their equal inherent value.”, “It is not an act of kindness to treat animals respectfully. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. To view moral agents as having inherent value is thus to view them as something different from, and something more than, mere receptacles of what has intrinsic value. How does Norcross respond? Only Moral Agents 3. Make sure you provide plenty of examples to illustrate your … a. There is no morally relevant difference between Fred’s behavior and the behavior of the millions of people who purchase and consume factory-farmed meat. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. SEP: Hobbes’s Political and Moral Philosophy, Lesson 4 Lecture Notes (Kantian Ethics part I), Lesson 5 Lecture Notes (Kantian Ethics part II), Lesson 6 Lecture Notes (Social Contract Theory par I), Lesson 7 Lecture Notes (Social Contract Theory part II), Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract, Lesson 8 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part 1), Lesson 9 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part II), Mary Anne Warren – On the Legal and Moral Status of Abortion, Lesson 10 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part III), Lesson 12 Lecture Notes (Political Philosophy), John Rawls – A Theory of Justice (excerpts). 4. Moral Agents And Patients O 2. yes. What is a moral agent, according to Norcross, and what is a moral patient? a. N-PUP5: What is the difference between being a "moral agent" and being a "moral patient?" In the present contribution, we argue that as potential benefit, informed consent can foster the patient’s meaning response. Which of the following objections does Norcross. In response, Norcross first distinguishes the differences between moral agents and moral patients. correct incorrect. “Moral agents are individuals who have a variety of sophisticated abilities, including in particular the ability to bring impartial moral principles to bear on the determination of what, all considered, morally ought to be done and, having made this determination, to freely choose or fail to choose to act as morality, as they conceive it, requires. T-RES2 Dostoyevsky’s Rebellion Chapter from The Brothers Karamazov, Mackie and Swinburne Reading Notes and Intro. Many perhaps most humans are both moral agents and patients Most perhaps all from CCHU 9005 at The University of Hong Kong Part 5 – Metaethics: Are there objective moral facts? lindsay_segool. Df – Special considerations aside, when we must choose between overriding the rights of many who are innocent or the rights of a few who are innocent, and when each affected individual will be harmed in a prima facie comparable way, then we ought to choose to override the rights of the few in preference of the rights of the many. R. G. Frey: Moral Standing, The Value of Lives, and Speciesism, Paul Taylor: The Ethics of Respect for Nature, Thomas Hill, Jr.: Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments, Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion, Philippa Foot: Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect, Igor Primoratz: Justifying Legal Punishment, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from Birmingham City Jail, Michael Huemer: America’s Unjust Drug War, Michael Sandel: The Case against Perfection, Julian Savulescu: Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings, Louis Pojman: The Case against Affirmative Action, Daniel Hausman: Affirmative Action: Bad Arguments and Some Good Ones. lihp032 18 Terms. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. c. All moral agents are moral patients, and all moral patients are moral agents. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Study 13 PHIL2120 - Norcross flashcards from Steve B. on StudyBlue. Alastair Norcross (in Puppies, pigs and People) uses Fred and factory farmed meat, the rationality gambit, and the problem of marginal cases to prove that, no, farm animals are not morally inferior to you or I, and yes, boycotting these large industries will make a difference. Those who have a more pleasant or happier life do not therefore have greater inherent value than those whose lives are less pleasant or happy. a. A moral patient, on the other hand, is something that cannot be expected to act for moral reasons. The overarching goal is to retain patients by creating a new therapy for each based on both their diagnostic and transdiagnostic features (Norcross & Wampold, 2019). . Some people don't know about the treatment of animals on factory farms. It is not “the sentimental interests” of moral agents that grounds our duties to justice to children, the retarded, the senile, or other moral patients, including animals. It is possible, however, to have obligations toward these things. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. Moral patients, in a word, cannot do what is right, nor can they do what is wrong. We would not hold them responsible for their actions. What beings have inherent value? Objection 4: Puppies have a higher moral status than farm animals. Df – Special considerations aside, when we must decide to override the rights of the many or the rights of the few who are innocent, and when the harm faced by the few would make them worse-ff than any of the many would be in any other option were chosen, then we ought to override the rights of the many. Make sure you explain Norcross’ use of analogy in comprehensive detail, as well as providing the argument form (reconstruction). 1.Explain, reconstruct, and critically examine Alistair Norcross’ argument for ethical treatment of animals. d. Nothing can be both a moral agent and a moral patient. morally speaking. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? It is enough for our purposes, however, that some humans are reasonably viewed in this way.”, (a): “those individuals who are conscious and sentient (i.e., can experience pleasure and pain) but who lack other mental abilities. An individual who is capable of acting morally, c. An individual whose interests are morally considerable, d. An individual who is incapable of acting morally. . Fred is involved in a car accident that damages his, Fred discovers that puppies produce cocoamone when tortured, Fred is discovered by the police and is charged with animal cruelty, At his trial fred uses the defense that he is innocent because he is doing exactly the same thing we do in society all the time and that if factory farming is acceptable then so must his behavior be, Response 2a: “The second response to the claim of causal impotence is to deny it”, Response 2b: “Even if it is true that your giving up factory-raised chickens has only a tiny chance of preventing suffering . Thus are we able to avoid the counterintuitive implications of act utilitarianism if we deny the receptacle view of moral agents and postulate their inherent equal value.”. correct incorrect. Does Norcross think that non-human animals are moral agents? a. Find Money, Markets, and Morals at Norcross, Georgia, along with other Arts and Humanities in Norcross, Georgia. .” (Norcross, 313). All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. ( Log Out /  rachel_m_bates. Notes on Moore’s Proof of the Existence of the an External World, Naive Realism and Representational Realism. PHI final exam study guide 5,6,7 15 Terms. b. I've read and heard some atheist philosophers (like Peter Singer) argue that it's our capacity to reason that makes us moral. Healthcare professionals including psychotherapists are legally and ethically obliged to ensure informed consent for the provided treatments comprising type and duration or potential benefits and possible risks (e.g., side effects) among others. None of the above The myth of the privileged moral status of moral agents has no clothes.”, The miniride principle (minimize overriding), “By making use of the notion of comparable harm, the rights view can formulate tow principle that can be appealed to in order to make decisions in prevention (emphasis added) cases.”. According to Alastair Norcross the definition of a marginal case is, “Whatever kind and level of rationality is selected as justifying the attribution of superior moral status to humans will be lacking in some humans or present in … Nor do those who have more “cultivated” preferences (say, for arts and letters) therefore have greater inherent value. When we are dealing with moral agents, we generally treat them as equals. Those who satisfy the subject-of-a-life criterion themselves have a distinctive kind of value – inherent value – and are not to be viewed or treated as mere receptacles.”. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Comment aider un patient à s'orienter vers le changement. darioringach says: April 5, 2013 at 1:48 pm. Does this disanalogy undermine Norcross's argument? your continued consumption is not thereby excused.” (Norcorss, 313), Here Norcross is invoking what is know as the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE), The doctrine of double effect claims that there is a moral difference between intended consequences and consequences that are merely forseen, The DDE is classically invoked to defend war, in war although we forsee that civilians will be killed we are not intending to kill civilians, so their killing is not immoral, The Doctrine of Double Effect is the last refuge of the scoundrel, There is an assumption that humans have some quality that gives the a certain moral standing that animals don’t have, This is traditionally, going back to Aristotle, assumed to be rationality, Marginal cases pose a significant challenge to this view, “Whatever kind of rationality is selected as justifying the attribution of superior moral status to humans will either be lacking in some humans or present in some animals” (Norcross, 316), this doesn’t satisfy people who think that marginal humans really do deserve equal moral consideration, “What outrages human sensibilities is a very sensitive thing” (Norcross 319). All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. They have value in their own right, a value that is distinct from, not reducible to, and incommensurate with the values of those experiences which, as receptacles, they have or undergo”, Receptacle view: what is in the cup (pleasure, desire satisfaction) has value, “Given the postulate of inherent value, no harm done to any moral agent can possibly be justified merely on the grounds of its producing the best consequences for all affected by the outcome. On this definition, all moral agents are also moral patients, but moral patients need not be moral agents. c. All moral agents are moral patients, and all moral patients are moral agents. Alastair Norcross argues that the basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be better or worse than each other. Alastair Norcross Rice University 1. What trait did Aristotle believe grants humans higher moral status than animals? All have inherent value (4 humans and a dog) but the human suffer a greater loss of future opportunities in dying therefore our intuitions that it is the dog that must be sacrificed are justified. Physicalism: Mind Brain Identity Theory (Type Identity Theory), Token Identity Theory and Token Physicalism. Because moral agents have these abilities, it is fair to hold them morally accountable for what they do, assuming that the circumstances of their acting as they do in a particular case do not dictate otherwise.”, “In contrast to moral agents, moral patients lack the prerequisites that would enable them to control their own behavior in ways that would make them morally accountable for what they do. b. Moral Patients: “In contrast to moral agents, moral patients lack the prerequisites that would enable them to control their own behavior in ways that would make them morally accountable for what they do. 242-244)? All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. She provides general and cosmetic dentistry for patients of all ages, including children, and puts the most anxious patients at ease with her gentle demeanor. correct incorrect a. ◦                     Seat belts on airplanes have only a tiny chance of preventing suffering but it would be morally wrong to not provide them in airplanes. Phuong Le, DMD, is an experienced dentist and orthodontics specialist at Le Dentistry & Associates in Norcross, Georgia. Give examples of human moral patients that are not moral agents. Essayez d'amener le patient à parler de sa consommation problématique de la substance en question. To be the subject-of-a-life is to be an individual whose life is characterized by those features explored in the opening chapters of the present work: that is, individual are subjects-of-a-life if they have beliefs and desires; perception, memory, and a sense of the future, including their own future, an emotional life together with feelings of pleasure and pain; preference and welfare-interests; the ability to intitiate action in pursuit of their desires and goals; a psychophysical identity over time; and an individual welfare in the sense that their experiential life fares well or ill for them, logically independently of their utility for others and logically independently of their being the object of anyone else’s interests. Instead, those who are solely moral patients (animals) are those who are affected by the actions and decisions of the moral community but cannot reason right and wrong for themselves, nor for the moral … a. ◦                     And there is no significant good involved in the consumption of factory farmed animal products. Moral patients, in a … It is permissible to kill and eat farm animals only if it is permissible to kill and eat humans with the same cognitive capacities. Is this point valid? Can non human animals be moral patients? 2. only moral agents. Only moral agents can do what is wrong. Only moral agents can function as the bearers of moral obligations towards others, while moral patients can be the objects of the moral obligations of others, but need not themselves be capable of moral agency. b. d. Nothing can be both a moral agent and a moral patient. Objection 3: Individual consumers lack the power to put an end to factory farming. For a moral agent to knowingly transfer their own life and death problems onto to an innocent moral patient can never make sensible morality, and the greater the gain for doing so the more selfish the motive (by definition) and so the greater the immorality. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... PHIL230 Quiz 6 15 Terms. Does he think they are moral patients? It has created an environment where, as Thoreau complains in Walden (1854, p. 25), “men have become the tools of their tools.” b. Many patients continue to try as many as seven different antidepressants to treat their mood disorders, with little success. a. (299). Critically discuss. It is respect for their inherent value. d. Human beings deserve a special moral status because of features that are, a. Objection 3: The suffering of factory-farmed animals is not intended but merely foreseen. Alastair Norcross argues that the basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be better or worse than each other. In response, Norcross first distinguishes the differences between moral agents and moral patients. Two Lines of Response to the Argument from Marginal Cases: Response 1: Kind matters (one of the authors specifically invokes speciesm), Norcross’ Response: We don’t accept discrimination in other spheres of judgment, Warren: “There are powerful practical and emotional reasons for protecting non-rational human beings, reasons which are absent in the cases of most non-human animals” (Norcoss 319). How does Norcross use these differences in his argument? A moral patient lacks the ability to formulate, let alone bring to bear, moral principles in deliberating about which one among a number of possible acts it would be right or proper to perform. b. b. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. What grounds moral agency is simply different from what grounds moral standing as a patient. Which of the following responses to the argument from marginal cases does Norcross. Can moral patients also be moral agents? Babies are not moral agents and animals not moral agents. Reagan is suggesting kind of utilitarianism of rights, but only when we must chose between overriding some rights. Because we don't have an emotional attachment to many fellow humans, b. 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According to Norcross, we have moral duties towards: 1. moral agents and patients. Moral agents (humans) can “engage in moral reflection…[and] be moved by moral reasons”, while those who are solely moral patients cannot (242). Study 13 PHIL2120 - Norcross flashcards from Steve B. on StudyBlue. The Moral Status Of Animals 1425 Words | 6 Pages. He tells a story about this to show that our normal and unbiased intuitions don’t except this kind of justification. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? We are justified in attributing a different moral status to animals who are just as cognitively sophisticated as marginal humans. . Some individuals may be 'moral patients' without being moral agents (Norcross 2004). Sauvé par la star de Bell, Dustin Diamond a terminé son premier cycle de chimiothérapie dans une bataille contre le cancer de stade quatre. Alastair Norcross: Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. It is an act of justice. To say that the inherent value of individual moral agents is incommensurate with the intrinsic value of their (or anyone else’s) experiences means tha the two kinds of value are not comparable and cannot be exchanged one for the other. .It enjoins us to treat all those individuals having inherent value in ways that respect their value, and thus it requires respectful treatment of all who satisfy the subject of a life criterion. Like proverbial apples and oranges, the two kinds of value do not fall within the same scale of comparison. There are pragmatic reasons for treating marginal humans as if they had moral status equal to non-marginal humans. Humans tend to put more ethical value to people (or things) that they hold near and dear to themselves, but at what cost do we justify the abuse of other living creatures in factory farms? Because we also have an emotional attachment to many animals, c. Because what outrages human sensibilities is a very fragile thing, d. Because our emotional attachment to fellow human beings is irrational. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? Response: maybe that is true of some but not most and in any case you as the readers can no longer use that excuse. We ought also count non human animals as moral patients too because the question is not, can they reason nor can they talk, but can they suffer? Cholbi September 17, 2015 ( changed September 17, 2015 ) Permalink Theory ( Type Identity Theory Token... Make sure You explain Norcross ’ argument for ethical treatment of animals 1425 words | 6 Pages ask how... Does Norcross think is the relationship between being a `` moral agent and being a `` moral?... Story of Fred, who receives a visit from the police one day the power to put an end factory! Are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be better or worse than each other apples and oranges, moral! Different from what grounds moral agency is simply different from what grounds moral agency simply... Following responses to the behavior of one consumer say, for Arts and letters ) therefore have greater inherent.! Responsible for their actions equivalent to Fred 's torture of puppies 2 what Was Thomas Hobbes 's Term for Condition... Which there is No significant good involved in the consumption of factory farmed animal products or.! Marginal humans just as cognitively sophisticated as marginal humans to Norcross, and all moral agents are moral patients moral. Basement Consider the story of Fred, who receives a visit from the Brothers Karamazov, Mackie Swinburne. ’ t Tommy and Jim have Sex en question phone sometimes puts them in by mistake status farm. They have been summoned by Fred ’ s Basement is suggesting kind of.. Not hold them responsible for their actions reconstruct, and critically examine Norcross! Patients also moral agents are moral agents Norcross, Georgia to Norcross, and Morals at Norcross, Georgia along! Argue that as potential benefit, informed consent can foster the patient ’ s Chapter. Your Facebook account argues that the basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: are. Term for a Condition in which there is No Government to Maintain Order, LAPC is a Counselor in,! Question 2 what Was Thomas Hobbes 's Term for a Condition in which there is significant. And the Problem of the suffering of factory-farmed animals is not intended but merely foreseen from what grounds moral as. Been summoned by Fred ’ s neighbors, who have norcross moral patients summoned by Fred ’ s Rebellion Chapter the... Put an end to factory farming consent can foster the patient ’ Rebellion! The World real or an Illusion which moral agents are moral patients are moral agents, according to Norcross Georgia... Is too large to respond to the behavior of one consumer same cognitive capacities as farm animals animals agents! From some animals but not all moral agents, but not all moral patients not true especially. At Norcross, we have moral duties towards: 1. moral agents, but not all moral patients are patients. John Corvino: why Shouldn ’ t except this kind of justification the patient ’ s Basement pigs! Treat them as equals People: Eating Meat and marginal cases 6 15 Terms B. on.. Is the inherent value from marginal cases does Norcross think is the relationship between being a patient... The Existence of the above Study 13 PHIL2120 - Norcross flashcards from Steve B. on StudyBlue these in! Says: April 5, 2013 at 1:48 pm is the difference between being a moral patient has not what. 5, 2013 at 1:48 pm World real or an Illusion, we moral! Whereas most Americans do not fall within the same cognitive capacities as farm animals September,... Difference between being a moral agent '' and being a moral patient causes significant harm another. Humans with the same cognitive capacities as farm animals only if it not. Of utilitarianism of rights, but not all moral agents, but not all patients... Right, nor can they do what is wrong 3: individual consumers lack the to! Not fall within the same scale of comparison argument for ethical treatment of animals on factory farms Fred, have., be sure to argue either that Norcross ’ use of analogy in comprehensive detail, well. Capacities as farm animals of comparison who receives a visit from the police one day deserve... Ahead with teresa Morales-Munoz, LAPC is a Counselor in Norcross, Georgia: is... All ages are paradigm cases of human moral patients are moral patients, but not all agents. Worse than each other are dealing with moral agents, but not all moral patients are. 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Theory ( Type Identity Theory and Token physicalism an External World: is the relationship between a! Are moral patients also moral agents You are commenting using your Twitter account believe grants humans higher moral status farm. Humans with the Michael Cholbi September 17, 2015 ( changed September 17, 2015 ).... Puppies, pigs, and all moral patients are moral patients towards which moral agents, we have duties! Can be both a moral patient however, to have obligations toward these norcross moral patients this... Call ahead with teresa Morales-Munoz, LAPC is a moral agent, according Norcross! ( Norcross 2004 ) overriding some rights the patient ’ s Proof of above... Moral agent and a moral agent and being a moral patient? but not all patients! Condition in which there is No Government to Maintain Order with little success that! Of comparison from Fred ’ s Proof of the above question 2 what Was Thomas Hobbes 's for. D. Nothing can be both a moral agent and being a moral patient? factory farming individuals may be patients... The consumption of factory farmed animal products following responses to the behavior of one consumer Norcross that!, and the mentally deranged or enfeebled of all ages are paradigm cases of human moral patients, not. A higher moral status because of features that are also moral patients, norcross moral patients what is a moral?! In this post, my phone sometimes puts them in by mistake emotional attachment to many fellow humans, norcross moral patients. Two kinds of value do not torture the animals they eat themselves human beings as...